We present a framework that encompasses three strategies for fish and wildlife managers dealing with ecosystems vulnerable to transformation. Specifically, managers can resist change and strive to maintain existing ecosystem composition, structure, and function; accept transformation when it is not feasible to resist change or when changes are deemed socially acceptable; or direct change to a future ecosystem configuration that would yield desirable outcomes.
Alaska, the state warming twice as fast as the rest of the nation, is a canary in the coalmine for climate disruption. Across the state, the effects of climate change are being experienced – some areas much more poignantly and life altering than others.
In Alaska, the people own the natural resources. Unlike other states, Article 8 of our Constitution requires that those resources, including oil and gas, be used wisely for “the maximum benefit of its people”. Royalties from non-renewable oil and gas sales are collected and part of the earnings redistributed to Alaskans in the form of a Permanent Fund Dividend (PFD) according to a specific formula.